Francisco Franco, in full Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde, byname El Caudillo (“The Leader”) (born December 4, 1892, El Ferrol, Spain—died November 20, 1975, Madrid), general and leader of the Nationalist forces that overthrew the Spanish democratic republic in the Spanish Civil War (1936–39); thereafter he was the head of the government of Spain until 1973 and head of state until his death in 1975.


Franco was born at the coastal city and naval centre of El Ferrol in Galicia (northwestern Spain). His family life was not entirely happy, for Franco’s father, an officer in the Spanish Naval Administrative Corps, was eccentric, wasteful, and somewhat dissolute. More disciplined and serious than other boys his age, Franco was close to his mother, a pious and conservative upper middle-class Roman Catholic. Like four generations and his elder brother before him, Franco was originally destined for a career as a naval officer, but reduction of admissions to the Naval Academy forced him to choose the army. In 1907, only 14 years old, he entered the Infantry Academy at Toledo, graduating three years later.

Franco volunteered for active duty in the colonial campaigns in Spanish Morocco that had begun in 1909 and was transferred there in 1912 at age 19. The following year he was promoted to first lieutenant in an elite regiment of native Moroccan cavalry. At a time in which many Spanish officers were characterized by sloppiness and lack of professionalism, young Franco quickly showed his ability to command troops effectively and soon won a reputation for complete professional dedication. He devoted great care to the preparation of his unit’s actions and paid more attention than was common to the troops’ well-being. Reputed to be scrupulously honest, introverted, and a man of comparatively few intimate friends, he was known to shun all frivolous amusements. In 1915 he became the youngest captain in the Spanish army. The following year he was seriously wounded by a bullet in the abdomen and returned to Spain to recover. In 1920 he was chosen to be second in command of the newly organized Spanish Foreign Legion, succeeding to full command in 1923. That year he also married Carmen Polo, with whom he had a daughter. During crucial campaigns against the Moroccan rebels, the legion played a decisive role in bringing the revolt to an end. Franco became a national hero, and in 1926, at age 33, he was promoted to brigadier general. At the beginning of 1928, he was named director of the newly organized General Military Academy in Saragossa.

After the fall of the monarchy in 1931, the leaders of the new Spanish Republic undertook a major and much-needed military reform, and Franco’s career was temporarily halted. The General Military Academy was dissolved, and Franco was placed on the inactive list. Though he was an avowed monarchist and held the honour of being a gentleman of the king’s chamber, Franco accepted both the new regime and his temporary demotion with perfect discipline. When conservative forces gained control of the republic in 1933, Franco was restored to active command; in 1934 he was promoted to major general. In October 1934, during a bloody uprising of Asturian miners who opposed the admission of three conservative members to the government, Franco was called in to quell the revolt. His success in this operation brought him new prominence. In May 1935 he was appointed chief of the Spanish army’s general staff, and he began tightening discipline and strengthening military institutions, although he left many of the earlier reforms in place.

Following a number of scandals that weakened the Radicals, one of the parties of the governing coalition, parliament was dissolved, and new elections were announced for February 1936. By this time the Spanish political parties had split into two factions: the rightist National Bloc and the leftist Popular Front. The left proved victorious in the elections, but the new government was unable to prevent the accelerating dissolution of Spain’s social and economic structure. Although Franco had never been a member of a political party, the growing anarchy impelled him to appeal to the government to declare a state of emergency. His appeal was refused, and he was removed from the general staff and sent to an obscure command in the Canary Islands. For some time he refused to commit himself to a military conspiracy against the government, but, as the political system disintegrated, he finally decided to join the rebels.

Franco’s military rebellion

At dawn on July 18, 1936, Franco’s manifesto acclaiming the military rebellion was broadcast from the Canary Islands, and the same morning the rising began on the mainland. The following day he flew to Morocco and within 24 hours was firmly in control of the protectorate and the Spanish army garrisoning it. After landing in Spain, Franco and his army marched toward Madrid, which was held by the government. When the Nationalist advance came to a halt on the outskirts of the city, the military leaders, in preparation of what they believed was the final assault that would deliver Madrid and the country into their hands, decided to choose a commander in chief, or generalissimo, who would also head the rebel Nationalist government in opposition to the republic. Because of his military ability and prestige, a political record unmarred by sectarian politics and conspiracies, and his proven ability to gain military assistance from Adolf Hitler’s Germany and Benito Mussolini’s Italy, Franco was the obvious choice. In part because he was not a typical Spanish “political general,” Franco became head of state of the new Nationalist regime on October 1, 1936. The rebel government did not, however, gain complete control of the country for more than three years.

Franco presided over a government that was basically a military dictatorship, but he realized that it needed a regular civil structure to broaden its support; this was to be derived mainly from the antileftist middle classes. On April 19, 1937, he fused the Falange (the Spanish fascist party) with the Carlists and created the rebel regime’s official political movement. While expanding the Falange into a more pluralistic group, Franco made it clear that it was the government that used the party and not the other way around. Thus, his regime became an institutionalized authoritarian system, differing in this respect from the fascist party-states of the German and Italian models.

As commander in chief during the Civil War, Franco was a careful and systematic leader. He made no rash moves and suffered only a few temporary defeats as his forces advanced slowly but steadily; the only major criticism directed at him during the campaign was that his strategy was frequently unimaginative. Nevertheless, because of the relatively superior military quality of his army and the continuation of heavy German and Italian assistance, Franco won a complete and unconditional victory on April 1, 1939.

The Civil War had been largely a sanguinary struggle of attrition, marked by atrocities on both sides. The tens of thousands of executions carried out by the Nationalist regime, which continued during the first years after the war ended, earned Franco more reproach than any other single aspect of his rule.

Franco’s dictatorship

Although Franco had visions of restoring Spanish grandeur after the Civil War, in reality he was the leader of an exhausted country still divided internally and impoverished by a long and costly war. The stability of his government was made more precarious by the outbreak of World War II only five months later. Despite his sympathy for the Axis powers’ “New Order,” Franco at first declared Spanish neutrality in the conflict. His policy changed after the fall of France in June 1940, when he approached the German leader Hitler; Franco indicated his willingness to bring Spain into the war on Germany’s side in exchange for extensive German military and economic assistance and the cession to Spain of most of France’s territorial holdings in northwest Africa. Hitler was unable or unwilling to meet this price, and, after meeting with Franco at Hendaye, France, in October 1940, Hitler remarked that he would “as soon have three or four teeth pulled out” as go through another bargaining session like that again. Franco’s government thenceforth remained relatively sympathetic to the Axis powers while carefully avoiding any direct diplomatic and military commitment to them. Spain’s return to a state of complete neutrality in 1943 came too late to gain favourable treatment from the ascendant Allies. Nevertheless, Franco’s wartime diplomacy, marked as it was by cold realism and careful timing, had kept his regime from being destroyed along with the Axis powers.

The most difficult period of Franco’s regime began in the aftermath of World War II, when his government was ostracized by the newly formed United Nations. He was labeled by hostile foreign opinion the “last surviving fascist dictator” and for a time appeared to be the most hated of Western heads of state; within his country, however, as many people supported him as opposed him. The period of ostracism finally came to an end with the worsening of relations between the Soviet world and the West at the height of the Cold War. Franco could now be viewed as one of the world’s leading anticommunist statesmen, and relations with other countries began to be regularized in 1948. His international rehabilitation was advanced further in 1953, when Spain signed a 10-year military assistance pact with the United States, which was later renewed in more limited form.
Franco’s domestic policies became somewhat more liberal during the 1950s and ’60s, and the continuity of his regime, together with its capacity for creative evolution, won him at least a limited degree of respect from some of his critics. Franco said that he did not find the burden of government particularly heavy, and, in fact, his rule was marked by absolute self-confidence and relative indifference to criticism. He demonstrated marked political ability in gauging the psychology of the diverse elements, ranging from moderate liberals to extreme reactionaries, whose support was necessary for his regime’s survival. He maintained a careful balance among them and largely left the execution of policy to his appointees, thereby placing himself as arbiter above the storm of ordinary political conflict. To a considerable degree, the opprobrium for unsuccessful or unpopular aspects of policy tended to fall on individual ministers rather than on Franco. The Falange state party, downgraded in the early 1940s, in later years became known merely as the “Movement” and lost much of its original quasi-fascist identity.

Unlike most rulers of rightist authoritarian regimes, Franco provided for the continuity of his government after his death through an official referendum in 1947 that made the Spanish state a monarchy and ratified Franco’s powers as a sort of regent for life. In 1967 he opened direct elections for a small minority of deputies to the parliament and in 1969 officially designated the then 32-year-old prince Juan Carlos, the eldest son of the nominal pretender to the Spanish throne, as his official successor upon his death. Franco resigned his position of premier in 1973 but retained his functions as head of state, commander in chief of the armed forces, and head of the “Movement.”

Franco was never a popular ruler and rarely tried to mobilize mass support. But after 1947 there was little direct or organized opposition to his rule. With the liberalization of his government and relaxation of some police powers, together with the country’s marked economic development during the 1960s, Franco’s image changed from that of the rigorous generalissimo to a more benign civilian elder statesman. Franco’s health declined markedly in the late 1960s, yet he professed to believe that he had left Spain’s affairs “tied and well-tied” and that after his death Prince Juan Carlos would maintain at least the basic structure of his regime. But after Franco’s death in 1975 following a long illness, Juan Carlos moved to dismantle the authoritarian institutions of Franco’s system and encouraged the revival of political parties. Spain had made great economic progress during the last two decades of Franco’s rule, and within three years of his death the country had become a democratic constitutional monarchy, with a prosperous economy and democratic institutions similar to those of the rest of western Europe.

Stanley G. Payne

Franco Bahamonde, Francisco

generale e statista spagnolo (El Ferrol, Galizia, 1892-Madrid 1975). Fece esperienza militare nel Marocco spagnolo e nel 1925 venne promosso generale. Tornò in Spagna nel 1927, come comandante dell'Accademia militare di Saragozza. Nell'ottobre 1934 diresse la repressione della rivolta nella Catalogna e nelle Asturie. Il governo di centro-destra nel 1935 lo nominò comandante in capo nel Marocco e, tre mesi dopo, capo di Stato Maggiore generale, posto-chiave dal quale egli iniziò l'epurazione degli elementi progressisti dall'esercito. Il suo appello al presidente del Consiglio, che offriva l'appoggio dell'esercito per ristabilire l'ordine (26 giugno 1936), fu respinto e con la vittoria del Fronte Popolare delle sinistre (1936) venne deciso il suo allontanamento da Madrid. Nominato governatore delle Canarie, egli continuò tuttavia a tenere contatti segreti per l'attuazione di un colpo di Stato contro la Repubblica. Questo iniziò il 17 luglio 1936 in Marocco, dove Franco si era recato con un aereo inglese per assumere il comando dei ribelli. Con quell'atto Franco si assumeva la responsabilità della guerra civile. Nominato “generalissimo” e capo dello Stato con pieni poteri dalla Giunta di governo di Burgos, creata dai ribelli in antitesi al governo centrale di Madrid, Franco attraversò lo stretto di Gibilterra con le sue forze e il 28 marzo 1939, dopo tre anni di durissima lotta che condusse con l'appoggio dell'aviazione italiana e tedesca, entrò nella capitale. Intanto già dal 1937 Franco aveva proceduto all'unificazione delle varie organizzazioni ribelli nella Falange Spagnola Tradizionalista e delle Giunte Offensive Nazional-sindacaliste, assumendone anche la direzione. Nel 1938 aveva trasformato la giunta di governo in governo nazionale, diventandone capo, e nel 1939 aveva aderito al Patto Anticomintern. Allo scoppio della seconda guerra mondiale evitò ogni intervento, seguendo una politica neutrale. All'interno Franco procedette a severe purghe degli elementi considerati ostili e iniziò la strutturazione dei sindacati verticali assoggettati al potere dalla contemporanea presenza dello Stato e degli imprenditori accanto ai lavoratori. Sua preoccupazione costante fu di evitare una rottura fra le forze dell'esercito, della falange e della Chiesa, programma che attuò con la formula dello Stato cattolico e sociale. Quanto al problema della successione, considerando inammissibile la pretesa di Giovanni, conte di Barcellona, al trono di Spagna, Franco il 7 giugno 1947 promulgò la legge di successione (ratificata il 26 luglio successivo) con cui dichiarava che la Spagna era un regno e si confermava capo dello Stato. Ciò preluse alla separazione delle cariche di capo dello Stato e di capo del governo, proclamata con la Legge Organica dello Stato (1966) e all'annuncio del 22 luglio 1969 in cui Franco rivelò che suo successore, col titolo di re, veniva nominato il principe Juan Carlos di Borbone, figlio del conte di Barcellona. Nel 1973 Franco attuò la divisione delle cariche di capo dello Stato e di capo del governo.

Francisco Franco

Général et homme d'État espagnol (El Ferrol 1892-Madrid 1975).

1. Une carrière militaire

Ce Galicien est le second des cinq enfants de Nicolás Franco, trésorier de marine, et de Pilar Bahamonde, femme effacée et pieuse issue d'une famille de marins. En 1907, ne pouvant s'inscrire à l'école navale à laquelle il se destinait, Francisco Franco Bahamonde entre à l'école d'infanterie de Tolède, où il reste jusqu'en 1910. Deux ans plus tard, il réussit à se faire envoyer au Maroc, où il est nommé lieutenant des troupes indigènes. En 1916, il est promu au grade de commandant et reçoit la médaille militaire. Rentré dans la Péninsule, il participe, sous les ordres du général Burguete, à la répression de la grève des mineurs asturiens (1917).

En 1923, il épouse Carmen Polo, fille d'un riche commerçant d'Oviedo, qui lui donnera un enfant, la future marquise de Villaverde. Jusqu'en 1926, Franco commande la Légion étrangère contre Abd el-Krim et met fin à la guerre du Rif. Un décret royal fait de lui le plus jeune général espagnol (1926).

Sous la dictature du général Miguel Primo de Rivera, Franco est placé à la tête de l'école militaire de Saragosse, mais, cet établissement ayant été supprimé par la seconde République (1931), il doit aller assumer le commandement aux Baléares (1933). Il joue encore un rôle actif dans la seconde répression de la grève des mineurs asturiens (octobre 1934), que lui a confiée le ministre de la Guerre Diego Hidalgo. En 1935, José Gil Robles, détenteur du portefeuille de la Guerre, veut renforcer l'armée et choisit alors Franco comme chef d'état-major. Toutefois, celui-ci ne conserve pas longtemps ces fonctions, car l'élection du Front populaire (février 1936) le relègue au poste de commandant général des troupes aux Canaries.

2. Le vainqueur de la guerre civile

Les 17 et 18 juillet 1936 éclate un coup d'État nationaliste. Franco publie aussitôt un manifeste en sa faveur à Las Palmas et, à la suite de l'accident d'avion qui coûte la vie au général José Sanjurjo, promoteur du soulèvement militaire, il prend la tête des opérations. Il s'envole pour Tétouan, s'assure le contrôle du Maroc espagnol, puis regagne la Péninsule.

À la fin du mois de juillet, l'Espagne est coupée en deux : le Nord et l'Ouest, dominés par les nationalistes, le Sud et l'Est (hormis quelques villes comme Séville et Cordoue et la région de Cadix), aux mains des républicains.

Tandis que l'armée du Nord est confiée au général Emilio Mola (qui se tue en avion neuf mois plus tard), la Junte de défense militaire, créée par les insurgés à Burgos, nomme Franco généralissime et chef du gouvernement (29 septembre), décisions rendues publiques le 1er octobre 1936. Quelques mois plus tard, Franco est proclamé Caudillo, et le décret du 30 janvier 1938 en fait le chef de l'État, du gouvernement et de l'armée.

Soutenu par la Phalange de José Antonio Primo de Rivera et par les forces de l'Allemagne hitlérienne (→ Guernica), Franco entre à Madrid le 28 mars 1939 et obtient la reddition sans condition des chefs républicains. Il parvient à réunir sous sa coupe monarchistes, phalangistes, carlistes (→ carlisme) et militaires. L'opposition est bannie et la répression sévère.

Pour en savoir plus, voir l'article guerre civile d'Espagne.

3. Entre soutien aux régimes nazi et fasciste, et neutralité

Considérant l'épuisement de l'Espagne au lendemain de la guerre civile, Franco préfère se maintenir dans la neutralité au début de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, bien qu'il croie, à cette époque, à la victoire des régimes nazi et fasciste – l'Allemagne et l'Italie ont été les premières à reconnaître son gouvernement (1936).

En 1940, il rencontre Hitler à Hendaye et occupe Tanger. En février 1941, il est l'hôte de Pétain. En 1941 il envoie une division de volontaires – la Division bleue (División azul) – combattre sur le front oriental contre les Soviétiques.

Mais il revient bientôt à la neutralité et évacue Tanger. Ce revirement ne suffit pas à lui gagner la faveur des Alliés, et, le 12 décembre 1946, à l'instigation des Soviétiques, l'assemblée générale des Nations unies recommande aux pays membres de rappeler leurs ambassadeurs en poste à Madrid.

4. La consolidation du pouvoir

Fragilisé tant sur la scène extérieure qu'intérieure, le Caudillo concentre tous les pouvoirs dans ses mains, soutenu par un parti unique aux composantes disparates – le Movimiento Nacional (Mouvement national). Il gouverne avec l'appui de l'armée, de l'Église catholique d'Espagne, de la Phalange et des grands propriétaires.

En 1942, il met en place les Cortes, assemblée dont les représentants sont nommés par le gouvernement ou élus par les corporations.

Le 26 juillet 1947, la loi de succession, stipulant que l'Espagne est une monarchie dont Franco est le chef habilité à nommer son successeur quand il le jugera opportun, est approuvée par référendum. Le général Franco choisit ses ministres en appliquant un habile système de bascule entre les différents groupes qui l'appuient.

5. Fin de l'isolement au plan international

Cherchant à rompre l'isolement de l'Espagne sur la scène internationale, Franco profite du déclenchement de la guerre froide, au tournant des années 1950, pour la réintégrer dans le concert des nations.

En effet, les États-Unis et la Grande-Bretagne considèrent que l'Espagne, dont la stabilité politique est garantie par la ferme autorité de Franco, constitue le meilleur rempart contre le communisme. Cette conviction débouche sur la signature d'un accord hispano-américain : en 1953, le Caudillo accepte l'établissement sur le sol espagnol de bases nord-américaines et reçoit en contrepartie une aide substantielle des États-Unis. Cet accord est renouvelé en 1958, puis en 1969, et suivi d'un « accord d'amitié » en 1970.

En 1953, Franco signe avec le Vatican un concordat qui rétablit ce qui avait été aboli par la République et resserre donc les liens entre l'Église et l'État. En 1955, l'Organisation des Nations unies (ONU) accueille l'Espagne parmi ses membres, suivie, en 1958, par l'Organisation européenne de coopération économique (OECE).

En 1956, devant le nationalisme grandissant au Maroc, Franco renonce au protectorat espagnol sur ce pays et ne conserve que Ceuta, Melilla, la Guinée équatoriale (indépendante en 1968), et l'enclave d'Ifni (rendue aux Marocains en 1969).

6. Le redressement économique

6. Le redressement économique

Face à la contestation qui gagne, à partir du milieu des années 1950, la société espagnole contrainte au rationnement et à l'émigration pour bénéficier du bien-être dont jouissent les pays voisins, Franco met un terme à l'autarcie et au dirigisme d'État en vigueur depuis près de vingt ans et promeut l'industrialisation rapide du pays.

À partir de 1965 environ, le développement économique – rendu possible par des années de paix, la participation à la vie internationale et l'apport des capitaux étrangers – commence à se faire sentir. L'émigration a tendance à se stabiliser, et l'afflux des touristes joue un rôle non négligeable.

Franco fait de plus en plus appel, au détriment de la Phalange, qui a légalement disparu en 1967, aux technocrates de l'Opus Dei, dont les objectifs essentiels sont précisément l'expansion et l'ouverture sur l'Europe (signature avec le Marché commun d'un accord commercial préférentiel, 1970).

7. Un régime contesté

Sur le plan politique, Franco ne consent qu'à une timide libéralisation.

En 1959, il fait preuve d'un certain esprit de conciliation en déclarant que les exilés et réfugiés politiques peuvent rentrer s'ils le désirent.

La loi organique de l'État du 22 novembre 1966 (promulguée en janvier 1967) institue la séparation des fonctions de chef de l'État et de chef de gouvernement, augmente le nombre de députés aux Cortes, renforce l'institution monarchique, crée le poste de député local et envisage la possibilité de créer des associations politiques.

La loi sur la presse de 1966 supprime la censure préalable. Le 22 juillet 1969, les Cortes approuvent à une majorité écrasante la désignation du prince don Juan Carlos de Bourbon comme futur successeur de Franco en qualité de roi.

Le régime incarné par le Caudillo est alors l'un des plus contestés qui soient, tant à l'intérieur qu'à l'extérieur : Franco est, en effet, considéré par les uns comme un dictateur pérennisant des méthodes condamnées par les démocraties modernes, par les autres comme étant le seul homme capable d'assurer à l'Espagne, encore marquée par les séquelles d'une atroce guerre civile, son intégration dans l'Europe.

En juin 1973, Franco laisse à l'amiral Carrero Blanco le titre de chef du gouvernement et garde pour lui celui de chef de l'État. Après l'assassinat de l'amiral en décembre, Franco nomme Carlos Arias Navarro chef du gouvernement. Le Caudillo meurt le 20 novembre 1975 après un longue maladie, Juan Carlos ayant été investi des pouvoirs de chef de l'État le 30 octobre.

contatoreBesucher Zähler